The snaps were taken in 1951, at which point Churchill had just been re-installed as Prime Minister after a six year absence.
Despite returning to the highest office, he appears relaxed as he is photographed on an outdoor swinging chair with Clementine and grandchildren Julian, Winston, Arabella, Nicholas and Emma. Other photos show him reading in his library, posing with his dog perched against his leg and inspecting the grounds of his country home near Westerham.
The snaps were captured by his friend Harold David John Cole, who later became president of the Royal Photographic Society.
The album, which contains 39 photos, has been consigned for sale with Dominic Winter Auctioneers of Cirencester in Gloucestershire, by a private collector. It is tipped to sell for £2,000.
The partly-smoked cigar was taken by a naval officer as a memento of the British wartime leader's stay on board HMS Pembroke in 1943.
Churchill was so impressed by Anderson during the assignment he offered him a job at Downing Street after his service with the Royal Navy ended in 1945.
Darwinian evolution is based on and characterized by four pillars, and those are supported by one grand mechanism (in the More to Explore for example, see the annotated Darwin book and also Jerry Coyne's book for clear explanations). Those four pillars are: evolution, gradualism, common descent and speciation. Evolution encapsulates the idea that species are not immutable. The species we see today didn't always exist. In fact, most species that existed in the past have become extinct. Today we see only the species that have evolved from those.
Gradualism expresses a concept that Darwin adopted from his geologist friends. In the same way that the sun, the wind, the rain, and geological processes slowly shape the surface of the Earth, evolution works slowly. It can take many thousands of generations for one species to evolve into another. Common descent means that even the enormous diversity of species we see today (on the order of ten million) all started from one life form. Finally, speciation refers to branching, when one species bifurcates into two different species. Since at every such branching node the number of species is doubled, this accounts for the rich variety we see today. The one fundamental mechanism on which all of this picture relies is natural selection.
Churchill demonstrates a remarkable comprehension of all of these concepts. In fact, we know that already at age 22, while stationed with the British army in India, he read Darwin's masterpiece On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.
Churchill writes, "very early, no doubt, modifications of the simplest bacteria appeared, from which rudimentary microbic organisms developed, able to feed upon the plants or their decaying remnants," to which he immediately adds, "this was probably the earliest bifurcation in the great tree of life, separating the plants from animals." He then goes on to describe in some detail the operation of natural selection.
For instance, he notes perceptively that "the problem of how life evolved from what we in our arrogance call 'lower' to higher forms is very much simpler than the question of how it first formed." He explains that in every generation there are some members that have somewhat different characteristics than the ordinary. He then elucidates that if a certain characteristic confers on its bearers an advantage in terms of, say, coping with the environment and in terms of producing offspring, then after many generations the entire population would shift toward that characteristic.
Churchill recognized that it is difficult to prove that the early stages of evolution indeed took place: "Direct evidence, of course, we have none. For it is only creatures with hard, bony shells or skeletons whose traces in fossil form remain." He did point out, however, that indirect evidence could be traced to creatures such as sponges (that survive even if cut into pieces), which were later followed by marine creatures similar perhaps to sea anemones.
After a brief discussion of how locomotion may have produced a difference between fore and aft in animals (but not mentioning the fact that the Earth's gravity probably produced the difference between up and down), Churchill discusses a few possible branching events, an important one being between snail-like creatures with external shells, and those species which developed backbones.