David Anthony: The Horse, the Wheel, and Language May 28, 2018 18:21:28 GMT
Post by Admin on May 28, 2018 18:21:28 GMT
The ANE genetic element was 75% of the ancestry in the sampled EHG and 40% in American Indians, so seems to have been widely spread across northern Eurasia during the Late Pleistocene (Lazaridis et al. 2016). In western Europe, the WHG had only a minor component of ANE ancestry, while skin color and some other traits separated the SHG (paler skin) from the WHG (darker skin, sometimes with blue eyes). All three European Mesolithic populations were genetically distinct from the Neolithic Starčevo-Criş/Cardial-Impressed/LBK farmers whose ancestors migrated from Anatolia to Greece and Crete about 6500 BCE (Deguilloux et al. 2012; Lacan et al. 2011).
These Early European farm-ers (EEF), whether in Greece (Early and Late Neolithic), Spain (Cardial-Impressed), Hungary (Starčevo-Criş), or Germany (LBK), were very similar to each other genetically (Skoglund et al. 2012; Haak et al. 2015). All shared a common genetic origin in Neolithic western Anatolia, as represented by ﬁve individuals from Menteş e Höyük and 21 individuals from Barcın Höyük in the northwest; how representative they are of other regions in Neolithic Anatolia is not known (Mathieson et al. 2015).
After their migration to Europe, most of the EEF populations remained genetically distinct from the indigenous hunter-gatherers for the ﬁrst one to two thousand years of the Neolithic, exhibiting a rate of admixture with the WHG, the foragers with whom they were most directly in contact, that is now estimated to have been only about 7–11% higher (Mathieson et al. 2015:529) than the Neolithic western Anatolians, who had little or no WHG admixture (Brandt et al. 2013; Bollongino et al. 2013; Szécsényi-Nagy et al. 2015; Haak et al. 2015). The very low initial level of genetic admixture with foragers among the EEF is unexpected, given that foods and raw materials were exchanged (Bogucki 2008; Oross and Bánffy 2009; Smith et al. 2015).
It suggests that the initial expansion of farming was accomplished largely by immigrants who were genetically about as different from the indigenous foragers as modern western Europeans are from East Asians. The immigrant farmers traded with the indigenous foragers, but were reluctant to exchange mates with them and so retained 90% endogenous EEF ancestry across large regions and many centuries of time, challenging scenarios (Robb 1993; Thomas 2006) of a border-less ﬂow of people and ideas between farmers and forag-ers. In the Middle Neolithic, during the late ﬁfth and fourth millennia BCE, EEF individuals from a megalithic grave in Spain and from the Baalberge, Salzmunde, and Bernburg cultures in Germany showed higher percent-ages of WHG genes, indicating that by this time—after most of the former WHG population had adopted agricultural economies—signiﬁcant inter-marriage between these populations began. The biggest surprise of the new genetic research was a genetic shift dated to the Late Neolithic in Germany, 3000–2500 BCE, when the Corded Ware horizon spread across most of northern Europe (Fig. 2.2).