Was the Maikop culture the PIE homeland? Jul 1, 2018 18:46:15 GMT
Post by Admin on Jul 1, 2018 18:46:15 GMT
Our results show that at the time of the eponymous grave mound of Maykop, the North Caucasus piedmont region was genetically connected to the south. Even without direct ancient DNA data from northern Mesopotamia, the new genetic evidence suggests an increased assimilation of Chalcolithic individuals from Iran, Anatolia and Armenia and those of the Eneolithic Caucasus during 6000-4000 calBCE23, and thus likely also intensified cultural connections. Within this sphere of interaction, it is possible that cultural influences and continuous subtle gene flow from the south formed the basis of Maykop.
Also, unlike more recent times, the North Caucasian piedmont and foothill of the Caucasus region was more strongly connected to Northern Iran than to the steppe, at least until the Bronze Age.
(…) our data shows that the northern flanks were consistently linked to the Near East and had received multiple streams of gene flow from the south, as seen e.g. during the Maykop, Kura-Araxes and late phase of the North Caucasus culture.
Alternatively, R1b1 was plausibly native to the Pontic-Caspian steppes. A male from the Mesolithic Samara culture (5,650–5,555 BCE) belonged to R1b1, which was the earliest documented ancient sample of this haplogroup discovered to date (Haak et al. 2014). There was cultural interaction between the steppe herders and the Maykop people from the Near East (Wang et al. 2018) and the steppe herders could have adapted to the Maykop culture, thus abandoning their previous hunter-gatherer lifestyle. In this complex civilizing process, dynastic marriages could have played a part as some Yamnaya individuals were buried in Maykop kurgans and Yamnaya chieftains could have intermarried with Maykop chieftains.
1. BU2001.A0101_Beily Ugol 2_North Caucasus - R1b-Y20993
2. GW1001.A0101_Goryachevodskiy 2_North Caucasus - R1b-Z2103
3. I1723_Goryachevodskiy 2_North Caucasus - R1b-L23
4. KBD001_Kabardinka_Late North Caucasus - R1b-Z2103
5. LYG001.A0101_Lysogorskaya 6_North Caucasus - R1b-Z2103
6. MK5009.A0101_Marinskaya 5_North Caucasus - R1b-Y20993
7. KDC001.A0101_Kudachurt 3823.5_MBA North Caucasus - J2b-L283
8. PG2001_Progress 2_Eneolithic Steppe - R1b-V1636
9. PG2004_Progress 2_Eneolithic Steppe - R1b-V1636
10. 12056_Unakozovskaya 6477.4_Eneolithic Caucasus - J2a-Y11200
11. VEK007_Velikent_Kura-Araxes - J1-Z1842
12. ARM002_Kaps_Kura-Araxes - G2b
13. I1635_Kalavan_Kura-Araxes - R1b-V1636
14. RK1001.C0101_Rasshevatskiy 1_Yamnaya Caucasus - R1b-Z2103
15. RK4002.B0101_Rasshevatskiy 4_Catacomb - R1b-Z2103
16. RK4001.A0101_Rasshevatskiy 4_Catacomb - R1b-Z2108
17. SA6003.B0101_Sharakhalsun 6_Catacomb - R1b-Z2103
18. SA6013.B0101_Sharakhalsun 6_Steppe Maykop Outlier - R1a-M459(YP1272?)
19. SA6010.A0101_Sharakhalsun 6_Yamnaya Caucasus - T-L206(Y8614?)
20. I6266_Klady 5200.0_Maykop - J2a-Y11200
21. I6268_Klady 5564.0_Maykop - J2a-Y11200
22. I2051_Marchenkova Gora D13 3260.0_Dolmen LBA - J2a-M410
23. MK5008.B0101_Marinskaya 5_Late Maykop - J1(Z1842?)
24. I1720_Baksanenok_Maykop - K(L?)
25. SA6004_Sharakhalsun 6_Steppe Maykop - Q-L933
26. NV3001_Nevinnomiskiy 3_Lola - Q-L717